Types of Threats

Threats are ever evolving and ever changing. Our multi-layered technologies go above and beyond the capabilities of basic antivirus. Learn more about what ESET protects you, your family and/or your business from.


Phishing is a form of social engineering attack, in which the criminal impersonates a trustworthy entity while requesting sensitive information of the victim.

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Ransomware is malware that can lock a device or encrypt its contents in order to extort money from the owner. In return, operators of the malicious code promise – of course, without any guarantees – to restore access to the affected machine or data.


Malware is a combination of two words – "malicious" and "software". This umbrella term describes any form of malicious code, regardless of the way it afflicts victims, how it behaves or what damage it causes.

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Spam is any form of unrequested communication sent in bulk (Unsolicited Bulk Email, or UBE). Its most frequent form is a commercial email sent to a large number of addresses (Unsolicited Commercial Email, or UCE), but “spamming” is also possible via instant messages, texts (SMS), social media or even voicemail. Sending spam is illegal in most jurisdictions.


In computer networks, firewalls block or allow network traffic, based on a set of predefined or dynamic rules and policies. They protect networks and computers against intrusion from potentially dangerous black-hats as well as from attacks that might enable them to take over the devices and misuse them for malicious purposes.

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Trojan Horse

Trojan horse (or “Trojan”) is a broad term describing malicious software that uses a disguise to hide its true purpose. However, unlike a virus, it is neither able to replicate nor infect files on its own. To infiltrate a victim’s device, this malware category relies on other means, such as drive-by-downloads, exploitation of vulnerabilities, download by other malicious code, or social engineering techniques.

Identity Theft

Identity theft is a crime in which an attacker uses fraud or deception to obtain personal or sensitive information from a victim and misuses it to act in the victim’s name. Usually, perpetrators of such crimes are motivated by their own economic gain.

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Malicious Cryptominers

Malicious cryptominers belong to the category of malicious code designed to hijack idle processing power of a victim’s device and use it to mine cryptocurrency. Victims are not asked to consent to such activity and even may be unaware that it is happening in the background.